In consecutive interpreting, a speech given by a speaker is rendered into another language one section at a time. This process requires no technical equipment. All it takes is a notepad and a pen – and, of course, a talented interpreter who must also be strong public speaker. Just like simultaneous interpreting, this mode of interpreting presupposes a lot of expertise, which is why consecutive interpreting is often called the holy grail of interpreting. Interpreters can do up to 10 minutes at a time, for example during an after-dinner speech. For that purpose, we rely on a special note-taking technique of symbols and abbreviations. This option is used whenever no interpreting booths for simultaneous interpreting are available and when there are too many participants to allow for whispering.